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REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 10  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 67-72

Microbiology of chronic otitis media—A review


1 Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, IMS and SUM Hospital, Siksha “O” Anusandhan University, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India
2 Medical Research Laboratory, IMS and SUM Hospital, Siksha “O” Anusandhan University, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India
3 Department of Microbiology, IMS and SUM Hospital, Siksha “O” Anusandhan University, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India

Correspondence Address:
Santosh K Swain
Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, IMS and SUM Hospital, Siksha “O” Anusandhan University, K8, Kalinga Nagar, Bhubaneswar 751003, Odisha
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/DYPJ.DYPJ_55_22

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Chronic otitis media (COM) is a major health problem in the world, particularly in the underdeveloped and developing countries. COM is typically persistent, insidious in onset, and usually capable to manifest deafness and otorrhea. The common microorganisms isolated from COM include Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Bacteroides. Otorrhea and healing of the tympanic membrane perforation in COM is a virtuous circle of events detected by the classic sequence of acute inflammatory change. In COM, a vicious circle occurs when incomplete healing predisposes the ear to further acute episodes, and these occur so frequently that they merge and are seen as continuous and chronic. Conservative medical treatment of COM is required to control active otorrhea. Effective treatment of COM needs a thorough knowledge of causative microorganisms and their antibacterial sensitivity. The appropriate identification of microorganisms and timely administration of antibiotics in COM patients ensure prompt clinical recovery and avoid possible complications. Bacterial predominance and sensitivity to antibiotics have changed over time, so these need periodic surveillance for guiding the appropriate antibacterial therapy. Early and effective treatment is based on the knowledge of causative microorganisms, and their antimicrobial sensitivity that ensures the prompt clinical recovery and possible complications of COM. The objective of this review article is to discuss the prevalence, bacteriology, treatment, and bacterial resistance in COM.


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