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   Table of Contents - Current issue
January-March 2022
Volume 10 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-42

Online since Tuesday, September 20, 2022

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The effect of social media on awareness and mental health of people during COVID-19 pandemic p. 1
Puneet U Anand, Sanjivani Vishwanath Patil, Rupeshkumar Balasaheb Deshmukh
Background: The lockdown and the pandemic has caused a lot of mental health problems and social media exposure plays a major role in it. At present, many myths about coronavirus transmission and prevention are being circulated through social media. Objectives: 1. The objective of this study was to assess the awareness of COVID-19 among social media users2. To assess the prevalence of mental health problems using Stanford Acute Stress Reaction Scale and WHO-5 Well-Being Index and its association with social media exposure. Materials and Methods: An observational, cross-sectional study was conducted online. Participants were invited to take part in online survey using various social media platforms. Validated semi-structured questionnaire tool was used to collect data. Mental health status was assessed using the Stanford Acute Stress Reaction Scale and WHO-5 Well-Being Index. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were applied for adjusted odds ratio (OR) of outcome variables with different risk factors. Results: A total of 27 (9.93%) study participants suffered from acute stress disorder. A total of 118 (43.38%) study participants suffered from depression. Multivariate analyses found that adjusted odds of acute stress disorders were greater among those aged more than 60 years (Adj OR = 1.08), more in females (Adj OR = 1.31) as compared to males, and those with higher secondary education (Adj OR = 1.73). Depression was significantly more among individuals who either spent all or more than half of their time reading about COVID-19. Conclusions: Study findings indicate a need to pay more attention to mental health among the general population while combating with COVID-19.
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Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: Carriage rate, knowledge, attitude, and practice levels among healthcare workers p. 6
Smita S Mangalgi, Astha Agarwal, Annapurna G Sajjan, Muragesh Math
Background: Ever-increasing numbers of infections by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains are being reported in the hospitals. Healthcare workers (HCWs) become colonized with MRSA and act as source as well as vectors for the transmission of MRSA infections to the patients. Aim and Objectives: The aim of this article is to detect the carrier rate of methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and MRSA among the HCWs and to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates to commonly used antimicrobial agents. Materials and Methods: Nasal swabs from 265 HCWs were collected between October 2018 and April 2019. The swabs were processed using standard laboratory techniques. Results: Of the 265 samples collected from HCWs, 46 (17.35%) showed the growth of S. aureus and among them 38 were found to be MRSA. The overall carrier rate of MRSA was 14.33%. The maximum carriage rate for MRSA was seen among nursing staff and that for MSSA among undergraduate medical students. Overall knowledge and attitude levels of HCWs though were found to be better proper preventive practices were not followed. Most of the MRSA strains were sensitive to vancomycin and linezolid, but more than 50% were resistant to commonly used antimicrobial agents in our hospital. Conclusion: Along with strict enforcement of infection control practices, regular surveillance of HCWs for MRSA colonization is necessary to limit the spread of MRSA by HCWs to susceptible patients.
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Clinicopathological spectrum of testicular and paratesticular lesions: A retrospective study p. 12
Shruti Jaiswal, Swapnil Jaiswal
Background: Both neoplastic and non neoplastic conditions affect the testis. Although non neoplastic testicular lesions are more common, still most of the published studies are done on testicular neoplasms only. Hence the present study was undertaken to study histopathological spectrum of testicular and paratesticular lesions, their age distribution and clinical presentation. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study of 77 cases of orchidectomy specimens, testicular biopsies and paratesticular lesions received in the department of Pathology. Results: Non neoplastic testicular lesions were more common than neoplastic (90.1% Vs 9.8%) with majority in the second and third decade. Undescended testis comprised 46.1% of the total orchidectomy specimens followed by Torsion/Infarction testis (15.3%). None of the undescended testis showed tumour deposits unlike western countries. Majority of patients presented with empty scrotum (31.16%) and testicular/scrotal swelling (18.11%). Only 5 cases of testicular neoplasm were diagnosed during the study period amounting to only 1.42 cases per year. All were germ cell tumours (4 classic seminoma and 1 yolk sac tumour). Conclusions: Non neoplastic testicular lesions were more common than neoplastic lesions. Complete neonatal examination for testicular descent should be mandatory to avoid late presentations and future malignancies. Germ cell tumours formed the bulk of testicular tumours.
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Study of depression in people living with HIV/AIDS attending antiretroviral treatment center p. 16
Bhagyashri S Bhure, Rajendra T Ankushe
Background: Depression, being the most common neuropsychiatric complication of HIV, is also associated with increased healthcare utilization, decreased quality of life, and poor adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART). Depression is a multidimensional disorder affected by a variety of biological, psychological, and social determinants, and this relation becomes more complicated in HIV patients. The current study therefore aimed to assess the prevalence of depression in adult people living with HIV/AIDS using Patient Health Questionnaire 12 (PHQ12) and to study the various sociodemographic factors and clinical variables associated with depression in adult people living with HIV/AIDS. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at an ART center in a tertiary care hospital in HIV/AIDS patients of 20–60 years of age. Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics were studied, and PHQ12 was used to assess depression. The χ2 test was applied to test association among depression, sociodemographic variables, and clinical variables of study subjects. Results and Conclusion: Out of the 372 study subjects 169 (45.4%) suffered from depression. Female sex, nuclear family, rural residence, lowered socioeconomic class (lower middle and below), illiteracy, widowed person, and opportunistic infection were significantly associated with depression (P < 0.05) in people living with HIV/AIDS. There was no significant association between prevalence of depression and age group, religion, CD4 count, and WHO staging.
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Slump sitting X-ray: A screening tool in degenerative lumbar spine p. 21
Sanjay Dhar, Anirudh Kumar, Sachin Yashwant Kale, Sachin Kandagatla, Akshat Pandey, Taarini Johri
Study Design: This was a prospective study. Purpose: The aim of this study was to introduce a new slump sitting method radiographs and to compare the angular range of motion (ROM) and displacement between conventional flexion view method and slump sitting radiograph. Overview of Literature: Most patients have mechanical low back pain and lumbar instability is considered to be responsible for most chronic and recurrent pain. Dynamic radiographs have been used to identify spinal instability. Methods: After ethics committee permission, this study was initiated. Sixty patients were enrolled in the study after obtaining written informed consent. Patients were randomly allocated into two groups: the first group underwent slump view then conventional view, and the second group underwent conventional view then slump view followed all patient’s extension radiographs taken. Angular and displacement measurements of the lumbar spine were carried out and compared. Results: Of 60 patients, 40 patients and 26 patients were found instability with slump radiographs and conventional flexion radiographs, respectively. When slump and conventional method were compared, the lumbar flexions were larger in slump radiographs. There were 22.35° of additional global flexion (L1/S1) (P < 0.0001) in slump radiographs when compared with conventional radiographs. Greater global flexion using slump method was found at all lumbar segments with L1/L2 contributing 1.15°; P = 0.009, L2/L3 contributing 3.41°; P < 0001, L3/L4 contributing 5.25°; P < 0.001, L4/L5 5.23°; P < 0.001 with the main contributor being L5/S1 7.41°; P < 0001. When slump and conventional method were compared in terms of displacement, there were no significant differences. Conclusion: The slump siting radiographs in lumbar spine instability effectively show the increase in global flexion with significant improvement in segmental flexion. Slump siting radiograph produces more stress in the entire lumbar spine, especially in lower lumbar spine to diagnose lumbar spine instability. Hence, slump sitting dynamic radiograph was shown to be superior to the conventional forward flexion method in measuring the angular ROM and noninferior to the conventional method in the measurement of displacement
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Physiotherapy in psoriatic arthritis: A systematic review p. 27
Pradnya Dhake, Sandeep B Shinde
Psoriatic arthritis is an inflammatory joint condition. It is a chronic condition that includes pinkish-red plaque formation on the skin, leading to its changes. The purpose of this article is to review the literature on the role of physiotherapy in psoriatic arthritis. We performed a critical systematic review on the role of physiotherapy in psoriatic arthritis. The article selection process was systematic. The inclusion criteria of the review were (1) physiotherapy practice with psoriatic arthritis; (2) physical activity in psoriatic arthritis; and (3) chronic psoriatic arthritis and co-morbidities. The current review included 11 studies that fulfill these inclusion criteria. Evidence demonstrates that there is potential benefit of physiotherapy treatment and rehabilitation in psoriatic arthritis. Patients with psoriatic arthritis have impaired function and quality of life. It may involve co-morbidities such as obesity, musculoskeletal disease, cardiovascular disease, or fibromyalgia, which can be improved by non-pharmacological approach, such as aerobic exercise and cardiorespiratory exercise. Low level laser therapy increases not only self-repair activities of living tissues but also cell membrane permeability and metabolism, and education of patients is also necessary to improve clinical conditions. Hydrotherapy, resistance exercise, cryotherapy, and interferential therapy are also beneficial in psoriatic arthritis.
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Superolateral dislocation of mandibular condyle associated with parasymphysis fracture p. 33
Amber Ali Faraz, Asmat Fatima, Samar Ali Faraz
Superolateral dislocation of intact mandibular condyle is a rare clinical condition due to trauma of the mandible. We report the case of a 31-year-old male patient presenting with superolateral dislocation of the mandibular condyle and an associated parasymphyseal fracture following traumatic insult to the mandible in a road traffic accident.
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Twin pregnancy with intrauterine fetal demise p. 36
Meenal Patvekar, Prashant Suryarao, Princy Panthoi Khumujam, Kale Dhana Laxmi, K Divya Sree
Multiple gestations are very commonly associated with higher rates of every complication of pregnancy with the exception of postterm pregnancy and macrosomia. It, therefore, increases the risk of perinatal morbidity and mortality as compared with singleton pregnancies. Fetal loss in twin gestation involves the various factors and is an unfortunate event, which is uncommon. The incidence of single fetal death in twin gestation is 2.5%–5.0% as compared to 0.3%–0.6% in singleton pregnancy. The presence of death twin in rare occasions creates a hostile environment for the surviving twin. This may lead to most feared complication like disseminated intravascular complication, which is fatal to both the mother and the surviving twin. Hence, the early detection of fetal demise in multiple gestations is important as they carry all potential obstetric complications.
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Penicillium chrysogenum: A rare cause of cerebral abscess p. 40
Neha Singh, Kavita B Anand, Aditi Sondhi
Brain abscess is a severe intracranial infection with a very high mortality rate and usually secondary to an external infection. Fungal infections are now been increasingly reported especially with Candida sp. We present a case of brain abscess in a 63-year-old woman, which was managed successfully by surgical evacuation and was diagnosed radiologically as a fungal infection and on culture detected to have Penicillium chrysogenum.
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