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   2021| July-September  | Volume 9 | Issue 3  
    Online since May 11, 2022

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Impact of COVID Pandemic on Psychological Health and Academics of Undergraduate Students
Aarati B Pokale, Aditya A Godbole, Rupeshkumar Deshmukh
July-September 2021, 9(3):87-92
Introduction: Novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) first caused an outbreak in Wuhan, China in December 2019. After its spread in India, lockdown was initiated which forced students to continue their education through online learning platforms. Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the impact of the pandemic on psychological health and academics of undergraduate students in India. Settings and Design: Online survey conducted among undergraduate students. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional study was conducted using three validated scales to assess fear, anxiety and depression (Numeric Rating Scale, Hamilton Anxiety Scale A, and Zung Self-Rating depression Scale). Statistical Analysis: Data were analyzed using the SPSS software version 25.0. The Chi-square test was used for the comparison of variables with demographic characteristics and regression analysis was done to calculate anxiety and depression scores. Results: Online survey was filled by 721 undergraduate students from across India. Moderate scores of fear, anxiety, and depression were reported to be 43.3%, 23.4%, and 76.4%, respectively. A total of 82.5% of respondents reported that the pandemic had affected their studies with disturbed routine, loss of concentration, and eye strain being the major causes. Conclusions: Mental health of students should be assessed and psychological guidance should be provided during the pandemic. Online teaching curriculum should consider all the stressors faced by students and planned accordingly.
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Psychiatric morbidities in inpatients of COVID-19 in dedicated COVID hospitals
Rashmi Joshi, Smita S Chavhan, Prasad T Dhikale, Balkrishna Adsul, Maharudra Kumbhar, Chinmay N Gokhale, Aniket R Ingale, Pradnya Pawar
July-September 2021, 9(3):77-81
Objectives: We aimed to assess (a) the prevalence of psychiatric illness in inpatients of COVID-19 and (b) different types of psychiatric morbidities. Materials and Methods: This hospital-based cross-sectional study was done in a dedicated COVID hospital after an Institutional Ethics Committee approval. It was a cross-sectional observational study of all patients admitted from December 2020 to May 2020 after ethical committee clearance. A total of 1535 patients were referred, and 1452 (8.2%) were diagnosed with psychiatric illnesses by using clinical interview and diagnostic questionnaire based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders Fifth Edition criteria. Results: Out of the 17,676 patients admitted during this period, 1,452 (8.2%) patients were diagnosed with psychiatric illness, out of them 1,233 (6.9%) had new onset psychiatric illness. The age (mean±SD) of the patients was 59.75±16.46 years. The majority [959 (66.1%)] of the patients were males and 493 (33.9%) were females. Psychopharmacotherapy and psychological interventions were done to help patients through this crisis. Duration of stay (mean±SD) was 16.86±10.4 days and 636 (43.8%) patients had comorbidities. Conclusion: The prevalence of psychiatric illness was 8.2% in inpatients of COVID-19. Common psychiatric morbidities in COVID-19 inpatients are depression, anxiety disorders, adjustment disorders, and delirium.
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Evaluation of post-surgical site infection wounds in a tertiary care hospital of Central India
Jagdish B Hedaoo, Amit V Paramne, Nirjhar Raj, Vinod N Rathod
July-September 2021, 9(3):82-86
Introduction: Surgical site infections (SSIs) are one of the commonest hospital-acquired infections globally. Materials and Methods: A total of 2083 cases were included in the study; surgical sites were graded in accordance to the set of clinical criteria recommended by the CDC’s NNIS system. We graded the wounds on the basis of culture positive with respect to age and sex, pre-operative hospitalization, duration of surgery, duration of drain, hemoglobin levels, random blood sugar, and smoking. Results: The total males and females included were 1561 and 522, respectively. The age group of 40–50 years was the highest operated group, whereas the 12–21 age group was with least surgeries. The numbers of SSI were higher in subjects with longer pre-operative hospital stay. The occurrence of SSIs was higher in surgeries with longer duration. Patients with drain of longer duration had higher number of SSIs when compared with subjects with no drain in wounds. The hemoglobin pattern suggested that anemic subjects were more susceptible to SSIs when compared with non-anemic subjects. Diabetic patients were more prone to SSI when compared with non-diabetic subjects. Smokers were more prone to SSIs when compared with non-smokers. Conclusion: The study established a relationship between SSI and various factors, which would help clinicians in handling cases of post-operative SSIs.
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Relationship of biofilm formation and antibiotic susceptibility profile of uropathogenic Escherichia coli
Manjula Mehta, Jyoti Sharma, Sonia Bhonchal Bhardwaj, Akshay Ghai, Arshi Chawla
July-September 2021, 9(3):103-106
Introduction: Escherichia coli is the most frequent etiological agent isolated from urinary tract infections. Ability of these bacteria to form biofilm is one of its important virulence factors. Moreover in the past decades, there has been a growing increase in the prevalence of antibiotic resistance against commonly prescribed antibiotics. Bacteria in biofilm are considered to be highly resistant to antimicrobial agents. Materials and Methods: All the urine isolates were cultured to isolate the etiological agent of the infection and were tested for their susceptibility against various antibiotics recommended for their treatment. Of these isolates, only E. coli were subjected for biofilm formation detection. The resistance pattern obtained after antibiotic susceptibility testing was correlated with the results obtained from biofilm detection. All the results were statistically analyzed. Results: Of all the isolated obtained after culturing urine samples, 90% of them turned out to be E. coli only. When these isolates were subjected to biofilm detection, 35% of them showed positive results. Further, their resistance pattern revealed that bacteria-forming biofilms were more resistant toward penicillins, cephalosporins, and fluoroquinolones where very little resistance was reported for aminoglycosides, carbapenems, and nitrofurantoins. Conclusion: As this study concludes a positive association between biofilm formation and antibiotic resistance, it is strongly suggested that detection of biofilm and awareness about the susceptibility pattern of the bacteria toward locally prescribed antibiotics can be helpful in improving the efficacy of the empirical treatment of types of infections.
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Is age related to orthodontic treatment?
Suma Shekar, BR Chandrashekar
July-September 2021, 9(3):113-115
In recent times, there is an increase in orthodontic patients due to changing trends in esthetic demand, improved socioeconomic status, and more social recognition. It can also be correlated with circulation of knowledge through the cyberspace, social media, and mass media. With increase in awareness toward orthodontic treatment, nowadays, there is an increase in adult patients seeking orthodontic treatment. Considering increase in demand for adult orthodontics, this paper aims to correlate age and orthodontic treatment.
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Catching them young: Impact of educational intervention on cervical cancer knowledge and human papilloma virus vaccine hesitancy in adolescent girls in urban India
Anusha Mittal, Aarati B Pokale
July-September 2021, 9(3):99-102
Background and Objectives: Cervical cancer is the most common cancer in females and a leading cause of cancer death in developing countries. The objectives are (1) to assess knowledge regarding cervical cancer and its risk factors among female adolescents and (2) to analyze human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccine status and reasons for vaccine hesitancy. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional interventional study in a women’s engineering college in Pune city, Maharashtra, India. About 230 students were administered pre-test. Educational intervention using videos on cervical cancer was done. Post-test was administered to check the change in knowledge. Statistical Analysis Used: SPSS software is used to calculate percentages and to apply the χ2 test. Results: Most participants had poor knowledge about cervical cancer. About 52% and 57% of the students did not know the cause and mode of spread of HPV. Only 15% were aware about vaccine. Unawareness was a major barrier to HPV vaccination. Conclusion: A need to empower females by educating them about cervical cancer was realized. The risk factors for this malignancy are preventable, and educational intervention can go a long way in raising awareness.
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Clinical profile of post-vaccination COVID-19-positive patients
Rajas Walinjkar, Smita S Chavhan, Balkrishna Adsul, Prasad T Dhikale, Rashmi H Shinde, Chinmay Gokhale, Aniket Ingale, Pradnya N Pawar
July-September 2021, 9(3):107-112
Background: Government of India launched the National COVID Vaccination Program with two vaccines, BBV152 (Covaxin) and AZD1222-ChAdOx1-S (Covishield). Both these vaccines have shown an efficacy of 78% and 63.1%, respectively, in clinical trials. It is evident that there still will be post-vaccination COVID-19-positive patients. However, there are no data regarding the severity and clinical profile of these vaccines in real world scenario. Hence, through this study, we aimed to assess clinical profile of patients of COVID-19 post-vaccination and evaluate the severity of the disease. Materials and Methods: This hospital-based cross-sectional study was done in a dedicated COVID Hospital with 1800 beds including 350 ICU beds after an Institutional Ethics Committee (IEC) approval. Confirmed COVID-19 RT–PCR-positive patients admitted to the DCH from March 10, 2021 to May 10, 2021 were asked history of vaccination and subjected to a predesigned standardized study proforma. Blood investigations were done at regular intervals. Regular standard of care was given to all patients. All cases post AZD1222 (Covishield) vaccine were categorized into two groups depending on the number of doses received and the data were statistically analyzed. Conclusion: As demonstrated by biochemical and radiological evaluation, two doses of the vaccine significantly reduced the severity of COVID-19 disease compared with a single dose, reducing the need for treatment interventions and also reducing the duration of hospitalization.
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Risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection among healthcare workers in a tertiary care center
Mysore K Yashaswini, Banur R Archana, Kirtilaxmi Benachinmardi, Lakshminarayana S Anjanappa, Sangeetha Sampath
July-September 2021, 9(3):93-98
Purpose: Healthcare workers (HCWs) are at higher risk of acquiring SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of current pandemic COVID-19. Being frontline workers and most essential resource of healthcare systems, it is important to identify infection in them early. Hence, this study was conducted to assess the risk of HCWs in acquiring SARS-CoV-2 infection. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was conducted at a tertiary healthcare center for a duration of 6 months. All the HCWs, involved in Covid-19 patient care, were enrolled in the study. A total number of 792 HCWs were screened for COVID-19 by using real-time reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction (rRT–PCR). Data on age, sex, and occupational categories were also analyzed. Results: There were a total of 792 HCWs involved in Covid-19 patient care. Doctors were 350 (44%), nursing staff 230 (29%), cleaning staff 130 (17%), and supporting staff 82 (10%). Female staff (66%) outnumbered male staff (34%). Among 792 HCWs, 35 (4.42%) were positive for SARS-CoV-2 by RT–PCR. The highest positivity rate was seen in supporting staff (18.30%), followed by cleaning staff (3.84%), doctors (3.14%), and lowest in nurses (1.74%). Out of the 35 positive cases, clinical symptoms were seen in only 18 patients. Majority of the patients (53%) were asymptomatic. Conclusion: Although HCWs are at a higher risk of acquiring SARS-CoV-2 infection as an occupational hazard, the chances of acquiring infection in the community cannot be ruled out. All the HCWs in the hospital setting should be screened periodically, even if they are asymptomatic.
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Automated interactive patient history-taking system: A review
Anish Desai, Sunaina Sunil Anand, Sunitha Elza Mathew
July-September 2021, 9(3):116-121
The process of history-taking has been challenging for India due to its booming population and severe scarcity of doctors. Inadequate patient history could lead to medication errors, adverse drug reactions, and medication noncompliance. Innovations in health information technology have great potential for improving the practice of medicine. Automated patient history is collected with the help of a computer. Physicians can use artificial intelligence to help with documentation, analysis of patient data while increasing the precision, productivity, and efficacy of the physician. Health-care providers are looking for regulatory compliant and efficient software for automated patient history taking. In telemedicine, automated history taking before the consultation can save physician‘s time, have more accurate history which will improve the telemedicine experience for the patient, especially in times of a pandemic like coronavirus disease 2019.
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